The education system in Egypt (detailed report)


The education system in Egypt (detailed report)
The education system in Egypt (detailed report)

Knowing the education system in Egypt is very important because understanding the nature of the educational system prevailing in any country is a prerequisite for the success of any attempt to reform or renew it, and renewal and reform has become a necessity with the changes and challenges the world is witnessing in all lifestyles, which calls for continuous change and development in education because it represents The basic pillar of progress and renaissance for any civilized society or seeks to civilize.

From this point of view, this chapter provides a historical overview and then deals with the different stages of education according to the Egyptian educational ladder. You can also learn about the new education system in Egypt.

Historical background on the education system in Egypt

Until the early nineteenth century, there was only one educational system in Egypt, represented by the kotatib, in addition to mosques and institutes that offered religious education. This system played an important historical role in preserving and spreading Arab-Islamic culture.

The process of education in Egypt began in the first decade of the nineteenth century, when educational policies and development were linked for the first time in history, with Muhammad Ali taking power in 1805. Society in that period, then his successors came, and Abbas and Saeed did not pay attention to education until Ismail came and witnessed great interest in education, but as a result of debt and loans and Egypt’s entry into financial problems, educational efforts were limited until the British occupation came during the era of Tawfiq, who was concerned with education for a job and was the first intellectual project that appeared In Egypt, Mubarak had a project in 1867 called the Rajab List. Then came the 1923 constitution, which stipulated that education is compulsory for Egyptians, and then the emergence of the governmental university, the Egyptian University, which was the idea of 1908 during the occupation era - and this reminds the Egyptians that for the first time the idea of a university appears with instability Political and under colonialism - usually universities are established with political, economic and social stability.

The university was actually established in 1925 and owned by a number of universities, until the 1952 revolution came, which aimed at economic and social development in Egypt through education and the issuance of the 1971 constitution, which emphasized that education is a right for every citizen and the emergence of a number of laws in that period until the nineties, which defined the objectives of learning in Education for the sake of excellence and distinction for all and we entered the new millennium and the main goal is the democratization of education and the development of new strategies to reform the educational system as a whole until the January 25, 2011 revolution came, which was a revolution on the political, economic and social conditions, including a revolution on education reform and easing the burden on the Egyptian family, and the days and history will show what it is The educational reforms that emerged after the revolution??!!

This is what will be explained to clarify the different educational stages, their laws and their development, and the following figure shows the educational ladder of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

The pre-school stage in the Egyptian education system:

The philosophy of pre-school education is based on the integrated development of the child in early childhood, taking into account individual differences in abilities, aptitudes and inclinations.

Pre-school education is a choice that includes every home or school that cares for children before the age of six.

Pre-school educational institutions are located outside the educational ladder. Therefore, the state does not bear the responsibility for spending on them. Rather, they are considered within the social services, and are divided into:

* Nurseries, a place devoted to the care of children who have not reached the age of six in return for a monthly subscription.

Kindergarten: An educational system that attends a public or private school and accepts children from the age of four until the age of six with fees that vary from one school to another.

The educational institutions were interested in preparing the kindergarten teacher, as the Childhood Studies Division was established at the Ain Shams College for Girls in 1975, then it became an independent department in 1980.

Kindergarten divisions were also established in the Faculties of Education in Tanta and Mansoura. As a result of meeting the requirements for this type of education, the Kindergarten Faculties in Cairo and Alexandria and Kindergarten Divisions in the Faculty of Specific Education were established.

The basic education system in Egypt:

Basic education in Egypt is defined as an educational stage that represents compulsory and free education in public schools, which is provided to all citizens, boys and girls in the countryside and in the prohibition, and represents the necessary limit of education that is characterized by a degree of flexibility and works to achieve the integrated growth of the student in all aspects of the personality and therefore by providing him Basic knowledge, skills, theoretical and applied experiences, trends and behaviors

The primary stage plays an important role in the educational system. The period that a child spends in school is one of the most dangerous periods of his life. At that age, what he learns and acquires during his time at school becomes firmly established in his mind and the ability to face society and work life and continue his education either on a correct basis. or based on error.

All the educational problems, and we can also say that the psychological, health and social problems that we suffer from students in the secondary and university levels are all foundations laid for them from the primary stage. Unfortunately, in developing countries, including Egypt, officials do not pay attention to that stage, which affects the following stages.

Several laws were issued to take care of the pre-university education stage, such as the 1956 constitution, the 1964 constitution, and the 1971 constitution

They acknowledged that education is a right for all Egyptians and that it is compulsory in the primary stage and free at all levels.

To organize primary education, several laws emerged, including:

  • Law No. 210 of 1953, which is the first law to organize primary education by making it compulsory and free from six to twelve, and a student after the fourth grade may enter the preparatory stage.
  • Law No. 213 of 1956 and this law was issued to abolish the duplication between primary and middle school, and the primary school became 6 years old.
  • Law 68 of 1968, in which primary education is a right for all children, determines the entry age, six years of schooling, curricula, and examination systems.
  • Law No. 139 of 1981 is faithful. The previous laws were abolished and the obligation was extended to include the primary and preparatory stage, which became a single stage under the name of basic education. In 1988, the primary stage was shortened to five years instead of six years.
  • Law No. 12 of 1996 regarding child protection and health, social and educational care through the supervision of the Ministry of Education.
  • Law No. 53 of 1999 amending the provisions of Law 139 of 1981 to make the compulsory period in basic education nine years instead of eight after the return of the sixth year, and this applies to everyone who enrolls in the first grade of primary from the year 1999/2000.

Basic education in Egypt is divided into:

  • First: The first cycle (elementary): It is for six years, compulsory, free of charge, and it is divided into:
  • The first grades from the first to the third: The aim is for the child to acquire the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic.
  • The last grades from the fourth to the sixth: It aims to ensure the basic skills that the child had previously acquired in the first grades.

  • Second: The second cycle (preparatory stage): for a period of three compulsory, free, and divided into:
  • Preparatory General: The aim is to provide students with scientific and cultural information to continue their education at the secondary level.
  • Preparatory Vocational: It is concerned with vocational training, work and production, and it joins these schools who have repeatedly failed in the first and second preparatory grades.
  • Preparatory special education: such as Al-Noor schools for the blind, schools for preserving sight, schools and classes for intellectual education.

The goals and philosophy of basic education in Egypt:

The philosophy of basic education in Egypt represents an educational thought in the field of raising children to take over the skills, experiences, theoretical and cognitive aspects, the basics of culture and national identity for all members of society, with an emphasis on lifelong education, the development of the student mentally, intellectually, technologically, arming with the elements of citizenship, religious and moral values, and contributing to the development of his country.

Basic education aims to develop the abilities and readiness of students, satisfy their tendencies, and provide them with the necessary amount of values, behaviors and scientific and professional knowledge that are consistent with the conditions of different environments, so that those who have completed basic education can continue their education at a higher level and face life after intensive vocational training, in order to prepare the individual to Be a productive citizen in his environment and society.

Types of schools in Egypt:

1- Governmental: The government supervises and finances it, and it is divided into:

A - Public schools teach curricula in Arabic.

B - Governmental language schools that teach mathematics and science in a foreign language in addition to teaching a foreign language.

2- Private schools: they are not free and are owned by individuals or institutions, but are administratively supervised by the Ministry of Education.

3- Foreign schools: they are affiliated with the embassies of foreign countries and are not affiliated with the Egyptian Ministry of Education, and their curricula and content are affiliated with foreign countries.

Curricula, Teaching Methods and Evaluation in the Egyptian Education System:

Study plan and courses in Egypt:

In line with the philosophy of basic education, the student studies in the first cycle of basic education (primary school) religious education (three lessons per week), Arabic language (12 lessons per week) except for the fourth and fifth grades (11 lessons), and Arabic calligraphy two lessons per week except Fourth and fifth grades (one lesson), mathematics (6 lessons), and science and social studies for each two lessons per week, starting from the fourth grade, to be replaced in the remaining grades by the subject of educational activities and scientific skills (10 lessons), and physical education, art, music and practical skills for each of them two lessons in The week starting from the fourth grade, foreign language (3 lessons) starting from the fourth grade and finally a library share for all school grades, so the total number of lessons in each of the first, second and third grades is (34 lessons per week) and in the fourth and fifth grades (38 lessons per week). It is noted that the vernacular skills include Four fields, namely, the agricultural field, the commercial field, the industrial field, and home economics, and each school chooses only two fields among these fields, in light of the conditions of the environment in which the school is located, taking into account that it provides girls with a field of study. The home economics mainly.

The secondary education system in Egypt

The preparatory school was established in 1953, and its aim was to prepare the means for growth for students, to identify the talents and tendencies of students, and to face the next stage of education, which is the secondary stage. The duration of the study was 4 years, and the law permitted the students who completed the study in the fourth grade of primary school to enroll in preparatory education, and then the first preparatory grade included students from the fourth, fifth and sixth grades of primary school. Two types of middle schools:

1- General prep

2- Technical preparatory school (industrial, agricultural, commercial, women)

  • In 1962/1963, the technical preparatory school was transformed into modern preparatory schools.
  • In 1968 it became only one middle school.

The goal of the preparatory stage:

Preparing students mentally, physically, morally, socially and nationally and revealing and developing their tendencies and abilities so that they can continue studying at the secondary or technical level, each according to his abilities.

Curricula, Teaching Methods and Evaluation in the Egyptian Education System:

The preparatory stage includes the following subjects:

  • Religious Education.
  • Arabic language and calligraphy.
  • foreign language.
  • Social subjects (history, geography, civics).
  • Mathematics: Arithmetic - Algebra - Geometry.
  • Science and health.
  • Art education.
  • physical education .
  • Music.
  • Scientific and applied fields.

The scientific and applied fields were abolished and the study became theoretical only. As for teaching methods using old methods, indoctrination is the basis for the teacher’s method of teaching with the use of laboratories in the minimalist limits.

The assessment process (or knowing the level of students) through:

The year’s work and the exams that are held monthly during the academic year.

* Semester exams.

Community Education in Egypt:

In the legal context of compulsory primary education, the five-year plan 1992/1997 and the following plan (1997-2002) focused on developing a strategy to achieve primary education for education in all parts of the country, especially developing and disadvantaged and hard-to-reach places, in 1992 in community schools and in 1993 in one-class schools.

(1) The one-semester school system in Egypt:

It was established by Ministerial Decree No. 255 of 1993 and is considered a pattern of education parallel to formal education in the primary cycle, with the aim of providing the opportunity to educate girls who have not enrolled in basic education or who have dropped out.

Girls from 8-14 years old enroll in it.

The project started with 313 schools in 1993/1994, it reached 2,612 schools in 2001/2000, and it reached about three thousand schools in 2011/2012

In contrast, the number of girls studying increased to more than seven thousand girls.

These schools were characterized by flexibility, as girls could be enrolled in a one-classroom school according to the grades they had previously completed. If she dropped out of education - and there is flexibility in study dates, they are determined according to the local environment conditions, and the official holidays are Fridays, feasts and markets.

The duration of the study is five years, but it may be shortened to three grades according to the mental level and academic achievement of the study.

The duration of the study is 34 weeks and includes activities related to productive projects. Ministerial Resolution No. 62 of 1997 allocating a class in preparatory schools close to the one-semester school clusters.

They are evaluated in the same manner as in the first cycle of basic education.

 (2) Community Schools in Egypt:

It started in 1992 through a partnership between the Ministry of Education and UNICEF, with the aim of good education for all, focusing on the most deprived areas of education, starting with the establishment of 4 schools in the villages of Assiut and reaching 201 schools in 2001 in the governorates of Assiut, Sohag and Qena.

 It includes children in the age group of 6-12 years and may include older people.

 Uses active learning and focuses on the acquisition and development of life skills and environmental problem solving as a basis for lifelong learning.

The number of children does not exceed 30 children.

Graduates of one-semester schools and community schools obtain a certificate of completion at the primary level, and its graduates can enroll in regular public schools or technical preparatory schools.

The number of students in one-class schools and community schools reached about 101,177 students in 2011/2012, and the number of classes in those schools increased to 4,624 schools in 2011/2012.

The secondary education system in Egypt:

The name of secondary education is given to the middle stage in education, which is the stage that follows the basic stage (primary and preparatory) and precedes the higher and university stage. The individual in the future, therefore, occupies an important and special position in the educational ladder. Education often includes two basic types:

General secondary education, which aims to prepare students for admission to universities and higher institutes.

Technical secondary education, which aims to prepare skilled workers and technicians necessary for the development of society.

General secondary education goals:

It aims to prepare students for life along with preparing them for higher and university education, participation in public life, and emphasizing the consolidation of religious, behavioral and national values.

Hence, it can be said that the secondary school has a number of functions and goals that it seeks to achieve in order to prepare individuals who are able to play an effective social role in society while fulfilling the personal requirements of the individual to achieve social adjustment.

Hence, secondary education was important within the educational system, and several laws were issued to regulate it, namely:

  • Law No. 211 of 1953 regulating secondary education in the preparatory and secondary sectors.
  • The 1957 law separated preparatory education and secondary education became an independent stage.
  • Law No. 139 of 1981 defines the place of secondary education as a middle or second stage after basic education and precedes university education.
  • Law No. 2 of 1994 The duration of study in secondary education is three years, and holders of a preparatory certificate are accepted, provided that the age is not more than 17 years, on the first of October for the applicant.

Hence, secondary education is divided into:

  • High school.
  • Technical secondary (industrial - agricultural - commercial - five-year system)
  • secondary vocational.

1. The general secondary education system in Egypt:

The academic year in the first grade is general for all students, provided that a certificate of completion of the general secondary education is obtained in two stages, the first in the second secondary grade and the second in the third grade. The system of improvement, but with the January 2011 revolution, the system changed in the 2012/2013 academic year, and the student had to enter the third year secondary examination only to obtain a secondary school completion certificate.


The decisions were until the 2012 law.

The first class is shared by all students.

Second grade students study:

  • Compulsory subjects: religion, Arabic language, foreign language, second foreign language, mathematics, physical education.
  • Elective applied subject such as: art education, music, home economics, commercial field, agricultural, industrial, computer

Courses in the third year of secondary school:

  • Compulsory subjects: religion, Arabic language, first foreign language, national education, physical education.
  • Elective subjects: The student must choose three subjects from among the scientific or literary groups, provided that he has not been tested in one of them in the second grade.
  • Scientific group: chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, geology.
  • Literary group: history, geography, economics, statistics, philosophy, psychology.
  • High-level subjects: Arabic language, foreign language, mathematics, biology, geography, philosophy, and logic.

Teaching and assessment methods in the Egyptian education system:

Teaching methods are based on the process of indoctrination, so it does not show the students’ participation in searching for information or developing their critical thinking. The entire dependence is on the textbook, which has been replaced by notes obtained through private lessons to facilitate memorization. Therefore, the student is evaluated over two academic years for the second and third grades, and from the sum of these two The two exams consist of the final total, which is determined on the basis of the student's fate.

The achievement exam measures the student's ability to memorize information, and then the exam has become a means to enable the student to pass it and achieve the largest total.

In 2012, after the revolution of January 25, 2011, Ministerial Decree No. 274 was issued to amend the general secondary system and return it again to only one year in the 2012-2013 academic year, so that the first grade of secondary school is general and divided into two semesters so that there are continuous subjects taught throughout the year and divided Its subjects are between the first and second semesters, and the student does not test in the second semester what he tested in the first, and they are subjects that are added to the total: Arabic language, first foreign language, second foreign language, mathematics and subjects that are not added to the total, namely religious education, national education and computer, subjects whose studies end at the end of the semester. Which:

  •  First group: biology, chemistry, history.
  •  Second group: Philosophy - Physics - Geography

 The physical education subject has a practical exam and is not added to the total. The activities choose one activity and have a practical exam and a pass and fail subject.

The second grade: a verb class and evaluated into two semesters: subjects added to the total: Arabic language, a first foreign language, a second foreign language, mathematics, subjects not added to the total: Religious education: citizenship and human rights, information technology, and the student chooses one of the two science or literary sections, and the subjects of the division Scientific (Chemistry, Biology) Physics, Mechanics, Literary Division (History and Psychology of the first group, geography, philosophy and logic, the second group Physical Education is a pass and fail subject and a practical exam is held for it and is not added to the total.

Educational activities and chooses one subject and is not added to the total. Vocational education is divided into (industrial technology, agricultural technology, business and project management technology).

The third year: It is divided into four sections: scientific sciences, scientific sports, literature and arts, etiquette and business administration. The subject of thinking and technology skills is added.

Accordingly, a number of Egyptian experiences emerged to develop general secondary education by adopting international methods and experiences such as England, the United States of America and other countries from these experiences.

The comprehensive secondary school experience in 1978/1979 aims to provide the student with the appropriate amount of theoretical and applied values and studies.

The Experimental Secondary Schools Experience: Its roots go back to the year 1957 and it was established in Cairo and Alexandria, then it was increased to five other schools and vocational, industrial, commercial and women’s courses were introduced to them. The number of schools reached about 13 schools 85/86, but this experience did not spread.

Experimental sports schools in 1988: Establishing experimental sports secondary schools in each governorate aimed at developing students' sports talents and improving their motor performance.

Experimental preparatory secondary schools 1988: The aim was to prepare students to join colleges specialized in preparing teachers in art education, music education or home economics, and then liquidate this experience in 1992 and transfer it to public secondary schools

The Experience of Caring for Outstanding Students in 1979: Its objective is to select outstanding students according to established criteria and place them in private classes or schools to follow up their excellence. inventive or inventive.

Technical secondary education system in Egypt:

Technical education in Egypt aims to prepare a graduate who possesses high knowledge and skills consistent with the national standards of skills, and thus has the ability to raise his professional, social, academic and technological level and adapt to the labor market.

Technical secondary education is divided into:

1- Industrial. 2- Agricultural. 3- Commercial.

In Egypt, there are some pioneering experiences in the field of technical education, including:

The Advanced Technical School for Maintenance Technology, the five-year system, in Nasr City, is accepted by all governorates, and the class density does not exceed 30 students.

The Advanced Technical School for Information Technology in Ismailia: The class density does not exceed 2 students.

Mubarak-Kool Project: An agreement between Egypt and Germany in February 1992, the aim of which is to provide technical labor trained on scientific bases using the creation of educational and technology methods.

Technical secondary education courses: Students in technical secondary schools study general culture subjects that include Arabic language, mathematics, science and other subjects, theoretical and scientific technical subjects, and these subjects are related to the type of education and specialization in addition to vocational training.

Industrial education includes multiple disciplines, including: electricity, decoration, advertising and coordination, wireless, ready-made garments, mechanical installations, cars, furniture trade and automatic knitting. As for agricultural education, it includes specializations such as: the General Division, the Division of laboratory trustees, land reclamation, agricultural mechanization and animal production, and commercial education includes specializations such as: the General Division, procurement and stores, commercial transactions, commercial insurance, hotel affairs, banks, port management, marine services and computers.

The Ministry has developed some specializations in technical education, and the electronic computer course has been introduced into the curricula of technical, industrial and commercial secondary education.

In addition to the courses of industrial security and management of small projects, these courses were characterized by flexibility and adaptation to the conditions of the environment and the needs of society. 29% of the hours of the plan were allocated to general culture courses. As for the theoretical technical courses, the percentage ranged between 25% and 34% according to the type of specialization. Vocational training was allocated between 37% and 46% according to the type of specialization, in addition to the fact that the student receives a summer training for two weeks at a rate of six hours per day in factories and production stands.

 Other specializations have also been entered in industrial secondary schools, namely, spinning mechanics, textile mechanics, electrical power, control devices and computer maintenance.

In order to keep pace with scientific progress and rapid technological developments, the Ministry of Education has developed study plans in technical schools, where some new disciplines have been developed, such as elevator maintenance, maintenance of medical devices, computers and software, information network, control systems, heavy equipment - secretarial - business administration and marketing.

- Evaluation system: it is based on official exams only or memorization measurements. It does not link between theory and practice. Even the entry of students to different disciplines is done on the basis of their total in preparatory, not on the basis of their desires. At the end of the third grade of secondary education, a general exam is held in two cycles, in which the successful ones are awarded (Diploma Technical schools (the three-year system) in which the specialization is determined, and an exam is held at the end of the fifth grade in which the successful students are awarded the diploma of technical schools, the five-year system, in which the specialization is determined.

Vocational secondary schools in Egypt:

It is attended by students who have obtained a professional preparatory school, and the duration of study is three years. The number of vocational schools is 2112, which are attached to secondary schools. Hence, the technical secondary school has become two schools working under one administration with the same faculty members, laboratories, facilities and burden.

The education system in Al-Azhar:

The educational system is managed by the Supreme Council for Al-Azhar Affairs, which is independent of the Ministry of Education and is affiliated with the Prime Minister

Al-Azhar schools are usually called institutes and include the following stages:

  • Primary: six years
  • Preparatory school: three years
  • High school: three years

The student studies the legal resources beside the life subjects, and separates the female students from the male students at all levels of study. Al-Azhar institutes are published in all parts of Egypt.

 From the previous presentation of the educational system for the pre-university stage, we find that there are many shortcomings that exacerbated educational problems, which necessarily led to social and economic problems, for example:

The concept of educational development suffers from confusion and interference, which led to the so-called changes in the stages of education being nothing but change, dependence or modification.

Planning is usually done without the actual beneficiaries such as the teacher, the guardian or the student himself.

Failure to adhere to scientific foundations and planning models for global development.

The absence of a clear educational philosophy, the lack of a complete understanding of reality, and the reliance on the policy of individuals (ministers) and not institutions. Each minister has a completely new strategy.

School curricula are theoretical and not related to the student's life and are based on indoctrination and memorization.

Considering the total scores and age are the basic criteria in the admission process from one stage to another.

The lack of a system for educational guidance and guidance for students, especially in the secondary stage when bifurcation.

Duplication of education between public and technical, government and private, private and private, languages and...... all lead to serious social problems and cultural differentiation according to the economic class, which threatens the unity of society.

Most of the amendments were on the examination systems, however, all of them were doubtful and not guaranteed. Memorization and the ability to measure what the student remembers is still the main goal of the exams, which caused social problems through private lessons.

The problem of funding and the lack of material capabilities and resources may lead to the failure of innovative experiments or any attempts to develop.

The high intensity of classes In the primary stage, the number of students in a class may reach 60 students, in addition to the existence of a school day system of two or three periods.

Palaces in school buildings, a number of which are not suitable, in addition to a number of others that are not built for educational or educational purposes, in addition to other buildings that are in danger of collapse.

Teaching methods that are based on indoctrination only and that the teacher is the effective sender and the student only has to receive.

These were just examples of obstacles, and there is a lot you can talk about, student, either because you are a teacher or because you were a student at those stages in the past.

The university level and the university education system in Egypt:

It is divided into: governmental higher education institutions, and includes universities, academies, higher institutes, intermediate technical institutes, and higher private institutions.

First: Universities in Egypt:

  Universities are the heart of the higher education system. The number of Egyptian public universities is (18) with 418 colleges. These universities are:

  • Cairo University: established in 1908 and includes 43 colleges.
  • Ain Shams University: Established in 1942, it includes 27 colleges.
  • Assiut University: Established in 1950, it includes 17 colleges.
  • Tanta University: Established in 1972 and includes 18 colleges.
  • Mansoura University: It was established in 1972 and includes 23 colleges.
  • Zagazig University: It was established in 1974 and includes 30 colleges.
  • Helwan University: It was established in 1974 and includes 18 colleges.
  • Minia University: It was established in 1976 and includes 16 colleges.
  • Menoufia University: It was established in 1976 and includes 22 colleges.
  • South Valley University: It was established in 1994 and includes 22 colleges.
  • Beni Suef University: It became independent from Cairo University in 2005 and includes 8 faculties.
  • Fayoum University: It became independent from Cairo University in 2005 and includes 14 colleges.
  • Kafrelsheikh University: It was independent from Tanta University in 2006 and includes 8 faculties.
  • Benha University: It was independent from Zagazig University in 2005 and includes 14 colleges.
  • Sohag University: It was independent from South Valley University in 2006 and includes 8 faculties.

 The number of students enrolled in these universities varies, as Cairo University occupies the largest number of enrolled students and faculty members. The number of members and their assistants reached 10916, and the share of a faculty member is (11) male and female students.

Academies in Egypt:

Bachelor's degrees and postgraduate degrees are awarded, namely:

A- Sadat Academy for Administrative Sciences: It was established in 1981.

B - The Academy of Arts was established in 1959.

C- The Arab Academy for Science and Technology was established in 1970.

 Higher institutes in Egypt:

The number of these institutes is five colleges and institutes affiliated to the Ministry of Higher Education:

A- Faculty of Industrial Education in Cairo, established in 1989.

B- The Faculty of Industrial Education, Beni Suef, established in 1992.

C- The Higher Institute of Management and Computer in Port Said in 1995.

D- The Higher Institute of Technology in Benha in 1988.

E- The Higher Institute of Energy in Aswan, Benha, in 1989.

Intermediate technical institutes in Egypt:

These institutes arose from the development of vocational training centers that spread in 1956 and accept high school holders to prepare them technically and professionally. The duration of study in them was one year. Then these centers were developed to become medium technical institutes with an increase in the duration of study in them to two years in 1966, and their number is about 47 institutes.

Second: Private institutions in higher education:

These institutions include universities and higher and intermediate institutes and accept Egyptian and expatriate students after obtaining a high school diploma or its equivalent. They are divided into:

  • private universities.
  • foreign universities.
  • Open university education.

Private universities in Egypt:

Law No. 101 of 1992 was issued to establish private universities, which are:

6th of October University, 6th of October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, Misr University for Science and Technology, Misr International University.

Foreign universities in Egypt:

The American University in Cairo, the French University, the German University, the British University, Senghor University in Alexandria, an international university for African development, and Senghor is a Senegalese writer and thinker.

Education in public universities is free in all its stages, but some government universities, through the establishment of branches in the departments of some colleges that teach in English, charge fees and are based on this that this type is suitable for the needs of the labor market.

Third: Open University Education in Egypt:

This type of education emerged for the needs of a group of Egyptians whose education was interrupted after completing their high school diploma and joined the labor market or obtained a high school or technical certificate five years ago and then wanted to pursue university education to improve their scientific and professional levels.

Universities’ response to this, and Alexandria University was one of the first of these universities in 1991, then Cairo University, Assiut and Ain Shams University.

Education is carried out using educational and technological media, and meetings with students are carried out at intervals.

By presenting the pre-school stage, basic education, and secondary education, both public and technical, and public and private university education, we cannot leave the education system without talking about adult education.

Adult education in Egypt:

As a result of all the problems faced by the educational system, it was necessary to develop new educational systems that could contribute to facing some problems.

Adult education means: a set of programs and activities, regardless of their level, content, or manner in which they are presented, whether they are formal or informal, regardless of their duration, and which are provided according to the needs of adults and the requirements of their society in order to enrich their information and knowledge and help them to form new skills and improve their qualifications for themselves and the society in which they live. live in it.

Adult education has a number of areas, including:

  • Literacy: An illiterate person, as defined by the 1991 law, is literate and has not obtained a basic education certificate between the ages of 15 and 30 years.
  • Continuing education: These institutions belong to those who have interrupted education for one reason or another. Formal education institutions provide opportunities to continue education regardless of age and without conditions, such as night schools and open university education programs.
  • Free studies: for those who wish to increase their knowledge in a subject or skill, including the Computer and Languages Education Center.
  •  Qualification and training: here is a difference between the two. The first means qualifying individuals for a new job for which they were not qualified before, while training raises the level of the individual in his same specialization, such as vocational training centers, training departments in ministries and universities.
  • Preparation of leaders: Given the sensitivity and seriousness of these positions, special programs were necessary, such as the grammar centers - consultations and leadership development centers.
  • And after: We must admit that the Egyptian society lacks a culture of scientific research and that there are many educational problems or in all educational stages and as a result of rapid changes in the whole world. new.

the reviewer

Students' problems in education and ways out of that crisis, Cairo: Thebes Foundation for Publishing and Distribution 2011.

Open distance education (from correspondence education to the virtual university), an introduction to comparative adult education, Cairo World of Books 2003.

Education in Malaysia: wide options for students at the secondary level 2013.

- Education in the Arab World, on the outskirts of the twenty-first century, Riyadh: Dar Al-Marikh 2004.

- Facilitator in Education Fifth Edition, Gaza, Miqdad Press 2007.

- Comparative Education: Concept - Objective - Curriculum (

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