the role of Taha Hussein, Dean of Arabic literature in education


the role of Taha Hussein, Dean of Arabic literature in education
 the role of Taha Hussein, Dean of Arabic literature in education

Taha Hussein is one of the most prominent educational thinkers in Egypt

Taha Hussein was born in 1889, and lived his childhood in a small community in the governorate of Minya, and poverty, ignorance, disease and oppression were rampant, so he paid a price for that in Basra, and joined the village book to memorize the Holy Qur’an, and by listening to what the educated people from Al-Azhar graduates in his village gave birth to a strong desire In going to Cairo and joining Al-Azhar, and he moved to Cairo with his older brother to receive knowledge at Al-Azhar from 1902 to 1912, and during this period the national movement increased, especially after the Denshway incident in 1906, and Mustafa Kamel discussed national and international efforts, as well as the establishment of the National University and the beginning of the study In 1908, Taha Hussein began adding to the traditional curriculum in Al-Azhar. He joined the university and received lessons on Islamic civilization, ancient Egyptian civilization, Arabic literature and Islamic philosophy, and the history of the ancient East. 

In May 1914, he applied for the universality exam and it included his discussion in two topics: the science of geography among the Arabs, and the comparison between the religious spirit of the Kharijites in their poems and in the books of the speakers. He also presented The message of Abu Alaa Al-Maarri.

Taha Hussein succeeded remarkably, which led to his being sent by the university to France on a study mission to obtain a doctorate from the University of the Syrians, which he was able to obtain in 1918 with his thesis on the philosophy of Ibn Khaldun, and during this mission he studied sciences such as psychology, sociology and French literature Modern history, Greek and Roman history, and then he learned these two languages, and in 1919 he also obtained a postgraduate diploma in the history of civil law.

It appears through the educational stages that a number of cultures went through, including Egyptian, Arab, Islamic, French, Greek, Latin and Semitic. And returned to carry hopes for the development of education in Egypt.

After his return from France, Taha Hussein worked as a professor of Greek and Roman history, then a professor of Arabic literature and then dean of the Faculty of Literature in 1928, until Taha Hussein issued a book “On Pre-Islamic Poetry” and the violent criticisms of Al-Azhar and religious men, which resonated with the political authority at that time, so he stayed away from teaching At the university, and a decision was issued to transfer him to the Ministry’s office, until he was appointed in 1942 as a technical advisor to the Ministry of Education, and at the same time Director of the University of Alexandria, then Minister of Education from January 12, 1950 to January 27, 1952.

 Taha Hussein was interested in making education available to all, free of charge, that every individual could attain. Egyptian. Where the goals of education were "the generalization of primary education and the taking of all people voluntarily or unwillingly." This is not limited to primary education, but calls for the expansion of public education, including secondary education as well as higher education. It aims from here to provide education for every human being, and then to achieve social justice. In the first stage of education, he set four goals for him, namely achieving national unity, achieving unity of national heritage, preparing for work, and forming a good boy for growth who is able to be a useful young man for himself and his nation.

Taha Hussein realized the danger of the diversity of primary education between governmental, private, private and religious on national unity and social cohesion, so he called for the need to unify all types of primary education.

As for secondary education, it has three objectives: preparing young people for a good, dignified and productive life, preparing students to join higher and university education, and achieving national unity.

The objectives of higher education were to qualify for excellent public positions, to refine the mind so that one would become an excellent educated person.

In the thirties of the last century, Taha Hussein demanded free education. In the beginning, the primary education was achieved. He was the Minister of Education, and he was able to decide that secondary education is free for all, then he called after that to allow education for people just as sunlight is permissible for them, as it is permissible for them to breathe air and for them. Nile water.

Also, during the era of Taha Hussein in the Ministry of Education, Law 143 of 1951 was issued regulating the comprehensive level of primary education and stipulated the abolition of first education, and the unification of education in the first stage in primary schools, starting from the age of six, and also Parliament decided that education should be compulsory from the age of six to twelve, It also established a commission affiliated to the Ministry concerned with combating illiteracy among men and women in rural and urban areas.

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